[Insert Clickbait Headline About Progressive Enhancement Here]

by {"name"=>"Aaron Gustafson", "uri"=>"https://www.aaron-gustafson.com", "twitter"=>"AaronGustafson", "googleplus"=>"AaronGustafson"} on 06 December 2016

Late last week, Josh Korr, a project manager at Viget, posted at length about what he sees as a fundamental flaw with the argument for progressive enhancement. In reading the post, it became clear to me that Josh really doesn’t have a good grasp on progressive enhancement or the reasons its proponents think it’s a good philosophy to follow. Despite claiming to be “an expert at spotting fuzzy rhetoric and teasing out what’s really being said”, Josh makes a lot of false assumptions and inferences. My response would not have fit in a comment, so here it is…

Before I dive in, it’s worth noting that Josh admits that he is not a developer. As such, he can’t really speak to the bits where the rubber really meets the road with respect to progressive enhancement. Instead, he focuses on the argument for it, which he sees as a purely moral one… and a flimsily moral one at that.

I’m also unsure as to how Josh would characterize me. I don’t think I fit his mold of PE “hard-liners”, but since I’ve written two books and countless articles on the subject and he quotes me in the piece, I’ll go out on a limb and say he probably thinks I am.

Ok, enough with the preliminaries, let’s jump over to his piece…

Right out of the gate, Josh demonstrates a fundamental misread of progressive enhancement. If I had to guess, it probably stems from his source material, but he sees progressive enhancement as a moral argument:

It’s a moral imperative that everything on the web should be available to everyone everywhere all the time. Failing to achieve — or at least strive for — that goal is inhumane.

Now he’s quick to admit that no one has ever explicitly said this, but this is his takeaway from the articles and posts he’s read. It’s a pretty harsh, black & white, you’re either with us or against us sort of statement that has so many people picking sides and lobbing rocks and other heavy objects at anyone who disagrees with them. And everyone he quotes in the piece as examples of why he thinks this is progressive enhancement’s central conceit is much more of an “it depends” sort of person.

To clarify, progressive enhancement is neither moral or amoral. It’s a philosophy that recognizes the nature of the Web as a medium and asks us to think about how to build products that are robust and capable of reaching as many potential customers as possible. It isn’t concerned with any particular technology, it simply asks that we look at each tool we use with a critical eye and consider both its benefits and drawbacks. And it’s certainly not anti-JavaScript.

I could go on, but let’s circle back to Josh’s piece. Off the bat he makes some pretty bold claims about what he intends to prove in this piece:

  1. Progressive enhancement is a philosophical, moral argument disguised as a practical approach to web development.
  2. This makes it impossible to engage with at a practical level.
  3. When exposed to scrutiny, that moral argument falls apart.
  4. Therefore, if PEers can’t find a different argument, it’s ok for everyone else to get on with their lives.

For the record, I plan to address his arguments quite practically. As I mentioned, progressive enhancement is not solely founded on morality, though that can certainly be viewed as a facet. The reality is that progressive enhancement is quite pragmatic, addressing the Web as it exists not as we might hope that it exists or how we experience it.

Over the course of a few sections—which I wish I could link to directly, but alas, the headings don’t have unique ids—he examines a handful of quotes and attempts to tease out their hidden meaning by following the LSAT’s Logic Reasoning framework. We’ll start with the first one.

Working without JavaScript


Unstated assumptions:

His first attempt at teasing out the meaning of these statements comes close, but ignores some critical word choices. First off, neither Jeremy nor I speak in absolutes. As I mentioned before, we (and the other folks he quotes) all believe that the right technical choices for a project depend on specifically on the purpose and goals of that specific project. In other words it depends. We intentionally avoid absolutist words like “always” (which, incidentally, Josh has no problem throwing around, on his own or on our behalf).

For the development of most websites, the benefits of following a progressive enhancement philosophy far outweigh the cost of doing so. I’m hoping Josh will take a few minutes to read my post on the true cost of progressive enhancement in relation to actual client projects. As a project manager, I hope he’d find it enlightening and useful.

It’s also worth noting that he’s not considering the reason we make statements like this: Many sites rely 100% on JavaScript without needing to. The reasons why sites (like news sites, for instance) are built to be completely reliant on a fragile technology is somewhat irrelevant. But what isn’t irrelevant is that it happens. Often. That’s why I said “it’s critical that we recognize that we can’t be guaranteed it will run” (emphasis mine). A lack of acknowledgement of JavaScript’s fragility is one of the main problems I see with web development today. I suspect Jeremy and everyone else quoted in the post feels exactly the same. To be successful in a medium, you need to understand the medium. And the (sad, troubling, interesting) reality of the Web is that we don’t control a whole lot. We certainly control a whole lot less than we often believe we do.

As I mentioned, I disagree with his characterization of the argument for progressive enhancement being a moral one. Morality can certainly be one argument for progressive enhancement, and as a proponent of egalitarianism I certainly see that. But it’s not the only one. If you’re in business, there are a few really good business-y reasons to embrace progressive enhancement:

Hmm, no moral arguments for progressive enhancement there… but let’s continue.

Some experience vs. no experience


Unstated assumptions:

You may be surprised to hear that I have no issue with Josh’s distillation here. Clunky is a bit of a loaded word, but I agree that an experience is better than no experience, especially for critical tasks like checking your bank account, registering to vote, making a purchase from an online shop. In my book, I talk a little bit about a strange thing we experienced when A List Apart stopped delivering CSS to Netscape Navigator 4 way back in 2001:

We assume that those who choose to keep using 4.0 browsers have reasons for doing so; we also assume that most of those folks don’t really care about “design issues.” They just want information, and with this approach they can still get the information they seek. In fact, since we began hiding the design from non–compliant browsers in February 2001, ALA’s Netscape 4 readership has increased, from about 6% to about 11%.

Folks come to our web offerings for a reason. Sometimes its to gather information, sometimes it’s to be entertained, sometimes it’s to make a purchase. It’s in our best interest to remove every potential obstacle that can preclude them from doing that. That’s good customer service.

Project priorities


Unstated assumptions:

Not to put words in Tim’s mouth (like Josh is here), but what Tim’s quote is discussing is hype-driven (as opposed to user-centered) design. We (as developers) often prioritize our own convenience/excitement/interest over our users’ actual needs. It doesn’t happen all the time (note I said often), but it happens frequently enough to require us to call it out now and again (as Tim did here).

As for the “unstated assumptions”, I know for a fact that Tim would never call “everything beyond HTML” superfluous. What he is saying is that we should question—as in weigh the pros and cons—of each and every design pattern and development practice we consider. It’s important to do this because there are always tradeoffs. Some considerations that should be on your list include:

This list is by no means exhaustive nor is it in any particular order; it’s what came immediately to mind for me. Some interfaces may have fewer or more considerations as each is different. And some of these considerations might be in opposition to others depending on the interface. It’s critical that we consider the implications of our design decisions by weighing them against one another before we make any sort of decision about how to progress. Otherwise we open ourselves up to potential problems and the cost of changing things goes up the further into a project we are:

The cost of changing your mind goes up the further into any project you are. Just ask any contractor you hire to work on your house.

As a project manager, I’m sure Josh understands this reality.

As to the “morally problematic” bit, I’ll refer back to my earlier discussion of business considerations. Sure, morality can certainly be part of it, but I’d argue that it’s unwise to make assumptions about your users regardless. It’s easy to fall into the trap of thinking that all of or users are like us (or like the personas we come up with). My employer, Microsoft, makes a great case for why we should avoid doing this in their Inclusive Design materials:

When we design only for others like us, we exclude everyone who is not like us.

If you’re in business, it doesn’t pay to exclude potential customers (or alienate current ones).

Erecting unnecessary barriers


Unstated assumptions:

I don’t think anyone quoted here would argue that the Web (taken in its entirety) is “the sum of all human knowledge”—Nick, I imagine, was using that phrase somewhat hyperbolically. But there is a lot of information on the Web folks should have access too, whether from a business standpoint or a legal one. What Nick, Jeremy, and Brad are really highlighting here is that we often make somewhat arbitrary design & development decisions that can block access to useful or necessary information and interactions.

In my talk Designing with Empathy (slides), I discussed “mystery meat” navigation. I can’t imagine any designer sets out to make their site difficult to navigate, but we are influenced by what we see (and are inspired by) on the web. Some folks took inspiration from web-based art projects like this Toyota microsite:

On Toyota’s Mind is a classic example of mystery meat navigation. It’s a Flash site and you can navigate when you happen to mouse over "hotspots" in the design. I’m pointing to one with a big red arrow here.

Though probably not directly influenced by On Toyota’s Mind, Yeshiva of Flatbush was certainly influenced by the concept of “experiential” (which is a polite way of saying “mystery meat”) navigation.

Yeshiva of Flatbush uses giant circles for their navigation. Intuitive, right?

That’s a design/UX example, but development is no different. How many Single Page Apps have you see out there that really didn’t need to be built that way? Dozens? We often put the cart before the horse and decide to build a site using a particular stack or framework without even considering the type of content we’re dealing with or whether that decision is in the best interest of the project or its end users. That goes directly back to Tim’s earlier point.

Progressive enhancement recognizes that experience is a continuum and we all have different needs when accessing the Web. Some are permanent: Low vision or blindness. Some are temporary: Imprecise mousing due to injury. Others are purely situational: Glare when your users are outside on a mobile device or have turned their screen brightness down to conserve battery. When we make our design and development decisions in the service of the project and the users who will access it, everyone wins.

Real answers to real questions

In the next section, Josh tries to say we only discuss progressive enhancement as a moral imperative. Clearly I don’t (and would go further to say no one else who was quoted does either). He argues that ours is “a philosophical argument, not a practical approach to web development”. I call bullshit. As I’ve just discussed in the previous sections, progressive enhancement is a practical, fiscally-responsible, developmentally robust philosophical approach to building for the Web.

But let’s look at some of the questions he says we don’t answer:

“Wait, how often do people turn off JavaScript?”

Folks turning off JavaScript isn’t really the issue. It used to be, but that was years ago. I discussed the misconception that this is still a concern a few weeks ago. The real issue is whether or not JavaScript is available. Obviously your project may vary, but the UK government pegged their non-JavaScript usage at 1.1%. The more interesting bit, however, was that only 0.2% of their users fell into the “Javascript off or no JavaScript support” camp. 0.9% of their users should have gotten the JavaScript-based enhancement on offer, but didn’t. The potential reasons are myriad. JavaScript is great, but you can’t assume it’ll be available.

“I’m not trying to be mean, but I don’t think people in Sudan are going to buy my product.”

This isn’t really a question, but it is the kinda thing I hear every now and then. An even more aggressive and ill-informed version I got was “I sell TVs; blind people don’t watch TV”. As a practical person, I’m willing to admit that your organization probably knows its market pretty well. If your products aren’t available in certain regions, it’s probably not worth your while to cater to folks in that region. But here’s some additional food for thought:

Reach is incredibly important for companies and is something the Web enables quite easily. To squander that—whether intentionally or not—would be a shame.

Failures of understanding

Josh spends the next section discussing what he views as failures of the argument for progressive enhancement. He’s of course, still debating it as a purely moral argument, which I think I’ve disproven at this point, but let’s take a look at what he has to say…

The first “fail” he casts on progressive enhancement proponents is that we “are wrong about what’s actually on the Web.” Josh offers three primary offerings on the Web:

This is the fundamental issue with seeing the Web only through the lens of your own experience. Of course he would list software as the number one thing on the Web—I’m sure he uses Basecamp, Harvest, GitHub, Slack, TeamWork, Google Docs, Office 365, or any of a host of business-related Software as a Service offerings every day. As a beneficiary of fast network speeds, I’m not at all surprised that entertainment is his number two: Netflix, Hulu, HBO Go/Now… It’s great to be financially-stable and live in the West. And as someone who works at a web agency, of course advertising would be his number three. A lot of the work Viget, and most other agencies for that matter, does is marketing-related; nothing wrong with that. But the Web is so much more than this. Here’s just a fraction of the stuff he’s overlooked:

It’s hard to find figures on anything but porn—which incidentally accounts for somewhere between 4% and 35% of the Web, depending on who you ask—but I have to imagine that these categories he’s overlooked probably account for the vast majority of “pages” on the Web even if they don’t account for the majority of traffic on it. Of course, as of 2014, the majority of traffic on the Web was bots, so…

The second “fail” he identifies is that our “concepts of universal access and moral imperatives… make no sense” in light of “fail” number one. He goes on to provide a list of things he seems to think we want even though advocating for progressive enhancement (and even universal access) doesn’t mean advocating for any of these things:

I’m gonna skip the third fail since it presumes morality is the only argument progressive enhancement has and then chastises the progressive enhancement community for not spending time fighting for equitable Internet access and net neutrality and against things like censorship (which, of course, many of us actually do).

In his closing section, Josh talks about progressive enhancement moderates and he quotes Matt Griffin on A List Apart:

One thing that needs to be considered when we’re experimenting … is who the audience is for that thing. Will everyone be able to use it? Not if it’s, say, a tool confined to a corporate intranet. Do we then need to worry about sub-3G network users? No, probably not. What about if we’re building on the open web but we’re building a product that is expressly for transferring or manipulating HD video files? Do we need to worry about slow networks then? … Context, as usual, is everything.

In other words, it depends, which is what we’ve all been saying all along.

I’ll leave you with these facts:

Is progressive enhancement necessary to use on every project?


Would users benefit from progressive enhancement if it was followed on more sites than it is now?

Heck yeah.

Is progressive enhancement right for your project?

It depends.

My sincere thanks to Sara Soueidan, Baldur Bjarnasun, Jason Garber, and Tim Kadlec for taking the time give me feedback on this piece.

  1. Of course, last I checked, over 55% of the Web was in English and just shy of 12% of the world speaks English, so…